raising of school leaving age

The raising of school leaving age (often shortened to ROSLA) is an act brought into force when the legal age a child is allowed to leave compulsory education increases. In most countries, the school leaving age reflects when young people are seen to be mature enough within their society, but not necessarily when they are old enough to be regarded as an adult.

There are several reasons why a government may wish to raise the school leaving age. It may be due to a lack of skilled labour in the country, or it may simply be a way of reducing a country’s unemployment figures.


[edit] Asia

[edit] Israel

The school leaving age was raised from 16 to 18 following a law change on 17 July 2007. The change will be implemented within three years of the law being passed.[1] In the 2005-6 school year 5.6% of students left school before the age of 18, mostly at age 16; the dropout rate was highest amongst Bedouin (9.8%) and lowest amongst Jewish students (4.7%).[1]

[edit] Australasia

[edit] Australia

The current age which a child can leave compulsory education in the state of New South Wales was raised to 17 in May 2009. The Education Minister Carmel Tebbutt stated “all the research shows that if students either get their Higher School Certificate or an equivalent vocational qualification, then their employment opportunities in later life are far greater and so is their income-earning capacity.” She mentions the change to the school leaving age is being combined with more subject options to make sure school remains relevant for all students.[2]

The state of South Australia also suggested similar proposals in March 2006, saying that their school minimum age should be raised from 16 to 17 by 2008. Independent state MP Bob Such suggests that it may not happen for at least another four years, whilst in the meantime, too many children are leaving school without any qualifications. The age will be raised by law on 1 January 2009 to 17 or 16 if the person is working or training.[3][4]

Tasmania has for decades had their school leaving age set at 16, with a requirement to be participating in education or training until age 17 recently enacted as of 2007 according to the Department of Education.[5][6]

The Western Australian government is pushing the minimum school leaving age up from 15 in 2006 to 16 in January 2007 and to 17 in January 2008. This should stay set in place for many years to come.

Victoria changed their school leaving age from 15 to 16 in 2006.

The minimum ages from 2009 will be the following:

  • Northern Territory – 15;
  • ACT – 15;
  • South Australia – 17;
  • Queensland – 17;
  • Victoria – 17;
  • Western Australia – 15;
  • NSW – 17 (if they want to not do their HSC they need to be working at least 25 hours per week or at TAFE studying until they turn 17;
  • Tasmania – 17.

Some states such as Queensland allow for students to leave conventional schooling at 15 if going into full-time employment, obtaining an apprenticeship or completing a tertiary education course at approved institutions (I.e. TAFE) (From 1 January 2006 the Queensland minimum school leaving age was raised from 15 to 16 years or when a student has completed Year 10, whichever comes first.)

[edit] Europe

The school leaving age in Belgium is set at 18.[6]

[edit] France

The statutory minimum school leaving age in France is 16. There are however a few specific cases where young people may enter employment before the age of 16, such as employment in the parents’ company, sporadic work or taking up an apprenticeship at 14, to name a few. The apprenticeship option is becoming increasingly popular [7]

[edit] Germany

The school leaving age in Germany is essentially set at 18. However, it does differ depending on the school type. For example, those attending a Gymnasium study for their Abitur and so leave at a later age of 18 than those for example attending a Berufsschule (16) or a Hauptschule (also 16).[6]

[edit] Italy

Until recently in Italy, students could leave school once they reached the age of 14. The compulsory school leaving age was raised to 16 years to bring the country into line with the rest of the EU.[8] The reform of the educational system presently underway in Italy has increased the school leaving age to 18 years. Apprentices below the age of 18 without occupational qualifications are offered the option of completing compulsory education required by Italian law.[9]

[edit] Netherlands

School leaving age in Netherlands is set at 18.[6]

[edit] Poland

The most recent occurrence of the school leaving age being raised in Poland was in 1999, when the Polish government proposed an overhaul of the country’s education system, resulting in school attendance being made compulsory up to the age of 18.[10]

[edit] Spain

In Spain, compulsory education is enforced from the age of 6, with their school leaving age set at 16.[11]

[edit] England and Wales

The school leaving age in the UK, particularly in England and Wales, has been raised numerous times. The first act to introduce and enforce compulsory attendance was the Elementary Education Act 1870, with school boards set up to ensure children attended school, although exemptions were made for illness and travelling distance. Since then, the age has been raised several times, most notably to 15 through the Education Act 1944 and to 16 in 1972, along with the addition of ROSLA Buildings and Middle schools, the latter serving the 8-12 or 9-13 age ranges, though many have since been abolished.

Some 16 year olds in England and Wales are of Compulsory age (those who turn 16 between September and June). Students must remain in school until the last Friday in June in the school year they turn 16 (usually the end of Year 11). This does of course mean that a small number of students leave school still aged 15.

The British Government has proposed raising the age again to 18 in 2013 in England only, which it believes will tackle the problem of young people leaving school unskilled,[12] with the DfES stating “we are letting young people down if we allow them to leave education and training without skills at the age of 16.”[13] Sixteen is the current school leaving age in England and Wales, with students generally required to complete their GCSE examinations at the end of year 11 before leaving.

Raising the participation age to 18 was first proposed to come into effect with the Education Act 1918. Plans for this were soon dropped when the government needed to cut public spending after World War I, as was the case when attempts were made to raise it in 1944, with cuts in spending after World War II delaying any plans preparing for it.[14] There is a probability that the participation age in education or training will rise to 18 in England but remain at 16 in Scotland and 16 in Wales according to a Welsh Assembly Government spokesperson.[15]

[edit] North America

[edit] Canada

In Canada, the age in which children are required to attend schools is determined by the provinces. Currently, enrollment in education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in all provinces and territories of Canada, barring Manitoba, New Brunswick and Ontario in which the school-leaving age is 18 unless the student graduates secondary education at an earlier age. In some provinces, early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances under the age of 16.

[edit] United States

In the United States, most states allow for the ability to drop out without parental consent at the age of 16. Those states which have raised their minimum dropout ages above 16 usually provide for exceptions of parental consent at ages 16 and 17. Further, most states have clauses allowing for graduation by students who manage to complete all academic requirements early.

[edit] States that have raised their minimum dropout age to 18

[edit] States that have raised their minimum dropout age to 17

[edit] States debating raising the minimum dropout age above 16

[edit] Organizations

The National Education Association, the main teachers’ union in the United States, advocates requiring students to earn a high school diploma or stay in school until age 21.[17]

[edit] Opposition

Leon Botstein is an advocate of reducing the minimum dropout age to below 16.

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Knesset raises school dropout age to 18 Haaretz, 18 July 2007
  2. ^ NSW Govt considers raising school leaving age ABC News, 17 November 2006
  3. ^ MP moots change to school-leaving age ABC News, 10 March 2006
  4. ^ “New school leaving age for South Australia”. Premier Mike Rann. 2007=05=02. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  5. ^ [1] Department of Education Guaranteeing Futures legislation 16 July 2008
  6. ^ a b c d School: leaving it too early Online Opinion, 1 September 2005
  7. ^ Contribution to EIRO thematic feature on Youth and work – case of France EIRO, 5 March 2007
  8. ^ International Living’s Italy FACT FILE International Living
  9. ^ Title of good practice: Basic skills for minor apprentices European Civil Society
  10. ^ Poland to raise school-leaving age to 18 BBC News, 28 May 1998
  11. ^ Spain RightToEducation.org, 12 November 2001
  12. ^ School leaving age set to be 18 BBC News, 12 January 2007
  13. ^ Staying on ‘must not be forced’ BBC News, 11 June 2007
  14. ^ Under-18s who leave school to be fined The Independent, 23 March 2007
  15. ^ School leaving age plans unveiled BBC News, 06 November 2007
  16. ^ http://statejournal.com/story.cfm?func=viewstory&storyid=77488
  17. ^ Proposal raises dropout age to 21

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article raising of school leaving age, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Comprehensive School

Comprehensive schools go beyond the medieval grammar school model (which focussed on languages) to include studies of the arts, sciences and humanities. For the most part, comprehensive schools that are state sponsored, do not select their intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude. This is in contrast to the selective school system, where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria. The term is commonly used in relation to England and Wales, where comprehensive schools were introduced in 1965. It corresponds broadly to the German Gesamtschule and to the high school in the United States and Canada. About 90% of British pupils attend comprehensive schools.

Although comprehensive schools do not directly select pupils on the basis of academic ability, they may be part of a system in which selection occurs via catchment area. For example, school catchment areas containing expensive houses will be mainly populated by wealthy parents, whose children would be expected to show, on average, a high level of academic achievement at primary school. Most comprehensives are secondary schools for children between the ages of 11 to 18, but in a few areas there are comprehensive middle schools, and in some places the secondary level is divided into two, for students aged 11 to 14 and those aged 14 to 18, roughly corresponding to the US middle school (or junior high school) and high school, respectively.

Since a comprehensive school offers a full range of subjects across the academic and vocational spectrum, it is commonly understood that the school will need to be of a large size and to take children from a wide range of abilities. In principle, it was originally conceived as a “neighbourhood” school, which all students in its catchment area were meant to attend, irrespective of ability and without, in most cases, any significant element of parental choice.


[edit] Finland

Finland has used comprehensive schools since the 1970s, in the sense that everyone is expected to complete the nine grades of peruskoulu, from the age 7 to 16. The division to lower comprehensive school (grades 1-6, ala-aste, alakoulu) and upper comprehensive school (grades 7-9, yläaste, yläkoulu) has been discontinued.

[edit] Germany

The comprehensive school of Ludwigshafen-Oggersheim

[edit] Comprehensive schools that offer college preparatory classes

Germany has a comprehensive school known as the Gesamtschule. While some German schools such as the Gymnasium and the Realschule have rather strict entrance requirements, the Gesamtschule does not have such requirements. They offer college preparatory classes for the students who are doing well, general education classes for average students, and remedial courses for those who aren’t doing that well. In most cases students attending a Gesamtschule may graduate with the Hauptschulabschluss, the Realschulabschluss or the Abitur depending on how well they did in school. The percentage of students attending a Gesamtschule varies by Bundesland. In the State of Brandenburg more than 50% of all students attended a Gesamtschule in 2007,[1] while in the State of Bavaria less than 1% did. Starting in 2010/2011, Hauptschulen were merged with Realschulen and Gesamtschulen to form a new type of comprehensive school in the German States of Berlin and Hamburg, called Stadtteilschule in Hamburg and Sekundarschule in Berlin (see: Education in Berlin, Education in Hamburg). Germany’s most famous Gesamtschulen are the Helene-Lange-School in Wiesbaden and the Laborschule Bielefeld.

[edit] Comprehensive schools that do not offer college preparatory classes

The “Mittelschule” is a school in some States of Germany that offers regular classes and remedial classes but no college preparatory classes. In some States of Germany, the Hauptschule does not exist, and any student who has not been accepted by another school has to attend the Mittelschule. Students may be awarded the Hauptschulabschluss or the Mittlere Reife but not the Abitur.

[edit] Controversies

There is some controversy about comprehensive schools. As a rule of thumb those supporting The Left Party, the Social Democratic Party of Germany and Alliance ’90/The Greens are in favour of comprehensive schools, while those supporting the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party are opposed to them.

[edit] Grade inflation

Integrierte Gesamtschule Ludwigshafen-Gartenstadt

Comprehensive schools have been accused of grade inflation after a study revealed that Gymnasium senior students of average mathematical ability[2] found themselves at the very bottom of their class and had an average grade of “Five”, which means “Failed”. Gesamtschule senior students of average mathematical ability found themselves in the upper half of their class and had an average grade of “Three Plus”.[3] When a central Abitur examination was established in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was revealed that Gesamtschule students did worse than could be predicted by their grades or class rank. Barbara Sommer (Christian Democratic Union), Education Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia, commented that: Looking at the performance gap between comprehensives and the Gymnasium [at the Abitur central examination] […] it is difficult to understand why the Social Democratic Party of Germany wants to do away with the Gymnasium. […] The comprehensives do not help students achieve […] I am sick and tired of the comprehensive schools blaming their problems on the social class origins of their students. What kind of attitude is this to blame their own students? She also called the Abitur awarded by the Gymnasium the true Abitur and the Abitur awarded by the Gesamtschule “Abitur light”.[4] As a reaction, Sigrid Beer (Alliance ’90/The Greens) stated that comprehensives were structurally discriminated against by the government, which favoured the Gymnasiums. She also said that many of the students awarded the Abitur by the comprehensives came from “underprivileged groups” and sneering at their performance was a “piece of impudence”.[5]

[edit] Unfairness

Gesamtschulen might put bright working class students at risk according to several studies. It could be shown that an achievement gap opens between working class students attending a comprehensive and their middle class peers. Also working class students attending a Gymnasium or a Realschule outperform students from similar backgrounds attending a comprehensive. However it is not students attending a comprehensive, but students attending a Hauptschule, who perform the poorest.

PISA points earned[6]
type school social class “very low” social class “low” social class “high” social class “very high”
Hauptschule 400 429 436 450
Gesamtschule 438 469 489 515
Realschule 482 504 528 526
Gymnasium 578 581 587 602

According to a study done by Helmut Fend (who had always been a fierce proponent of comprehensive schools) revealed that comprehensive schools do not help working class students. He compared alumni of the tripartite system to alumni of comprehensive schools. While working class alumni of comprehensive schools were awarded better school diplomas at age 35, they held similar occupational positions as working class alumni of the tripartite system and were as unlikely to graduate from college.[7]

According to Kurt A. Heller:

Social class divergences are exacerbated by comprehensive schools.

According to Ulrich Sprenger:

As the proponents of comprehensives invariably demand humanization of schools, it is very disappointing that socially disadvantaged students, who are most desperately in need of a process of humanization, obviously benefit the least from the structural innovations brought about by the integrated comprehensive system, the organisational and curricular changes of which were primarily aimed at promoting and providing special assistance to this very group of students.

[edit] Gibraltar

Gibraltar opened its first comprehensive school in 1972. Between the ages of 12 and 16 two comprehensive schools cater for girls and boys separately. Students may also continue into the sixth form to complete their A-levels.

[edit] Ireland

These schools were introduced into Ireland in 1966 by an initiative by Patrick Hillery, Minister for Education, to give a broader range of education compared to that of the vocational school system, which was then the only system of schools completely controlled by the state. Until then, education in Ireland was largely dominated by religious persuasion, particularly the voluntary secondary school system was a particular realisation of this. The comprehensive school system is still relatively small and to an extent has been superseded by the community school concept. The Irish word for a comprehensive school is a ‘scoil chuimsitheach.’

In Ireland comprehensive schools were an earlier model of state schools, introduced in the late 1960s and largely replaced by the secular community model of the 1970s. The comprehensive model generally incorporated older schools that were under Roman Catholic or Protestant ownership, and the various denominations still manage the school as patrons or trustees. The state owns the school property, which is vested in the trustees in perpetuity. The model was adopted to make state schools more acceptable to a largely conservative society of the time.

The introduction of the community school model in the 1970s controversially removed the denominational basis of the schools, but religious interests were invited to be represented on the Boards of Management. Community schools are divided into two models, the community school vested in the Minister for Education and the community college vested in the local Vocational Education Committee. Community colleges tended to be amalgamations of unviable local schools under the umbrella of a new community school model, but community schools have tended to be entirely new foundations.

[edit] Sweden

Sweden had used mixed-ability schools for some years before they were introduced into England and Wales, and was chosen as one of the models.

[edit] United Kingdom

[edit] England and Wales

[edit] Origins

Before the Second World War, secondary education provision in Britain was both patchy and expensive. After the war, secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland was provided free to at least the age of 14 under a policy introduced by Conservative Secretary of State for Education R.A. Butler. The Education Act 1944 made provision for primary, secondary and further education but did not mention the 11+ exam or the tripartite system (secondary modern, secondary technical and grammar school). ‘The tripartite system was no more than the continuation of the 19th century class-based system of English education which had been promoted by the reports of Spens (1938) and Norwood (1943)’ (D. Gillard, 2011). However, as a result of the flexibility of the Education Act 1944, many Local Education Authorities (LEAs) were free to choose how to establish the secondary school sector. Many LEAs chose to adopt the tripartite system described in Norwood’s 1943 report.

Comprehensive school was introduced in 1965 by the Labour Government of the time (Chitty 2009). Students sat the 11+ examination in their last year of primary education and were sent to one of a secondary modern, secondary technical or grammar school depending on their perceived ability. As it transpired, secondary technical schools were never widely implemented and for 20 years there was a virtual bipartite system which saw fierce competition for the available grammar school places, which varied between 15% and 25% of total secondary places, depending on location.

[edit] Early comprehensives

The first comprehensives were set up after the Second World War. In 1946, for example, Walworth School was one of five ‘experimental’ comprehensive schools set up by the London County Council[10] Another early comprehensive school was Holyhead County School in Anglesey in 1949.[11][12] Other places that experimented with comprehensives included Coventry, Sheffield, Leicestershire, and the West Riding of Yorkshire.

These early comprehensives mostly modelled themselves, in terms of ethos, on the grammar school, with gown-wearing teachers conducting lessons in a very formal style. Some comprehensive schools have continued to follow this model, especially those that were themselves grammar schools before becoming comprehensives. The opening of Risinghill School in Islington in 1960 offered an alternative to this model. Embracing the progressive ideals of sixties education, the school abandoned corporal punishment and brought in a much more liberal attitude to discipline and methods of study. However, this idea did not take hold in many places.

[edit] Nationwide implementation

The largest expansion of comprehensive schools resulted from a policy decision taken in 1965 by Anthony Crosland, Secretary of State for Education in the 1964–1970 Labour government, a fervent supporter of comprehensive education. This had been the party’s policy for some time. The policy decision was implemented by Circular 10/65, an instruction to local education authorities to plan for conversion.

In 1970 the Conservative Party re-entered government. Margaret Thatcher became Secretary of State for Education, and ended the compulsion on local authorities to convert. However, many local authorities were so far down the path that it would have been prohibitively expensive to attempt to reverse the process, and more comprehensive schools were established under Mrs Thatcher than any other education secretary. However, she went on to be a ferocious critic of comprehensive education. By 1975 the majority of local authorities in England and Wales had abandoned the 11-plus examination and moved to a comprehensive system.

Over that 10-year period many secondary modern schools and grammar schools were amalgamated to form large neighbourhood comprehensives, whilst a number of new schools were built to accommodate a growing school population. By 1968 around 20% of children had been in comprehensives, and by the mid-1970s the system had been almost fully implemented. Nearly all new schools were built as comprehensives, and existing grammar and modern schools had either been closed (see for example the Liverpool Institute) or amalgamated with neighbouring secondary moderns to produce comprehensive schools. A small number of local education authorities have held out against the trend, such as Kent. In those places, grammar schools, secondary modern schools and selection at 11 continue.

[edit] Timetable of implementation (by LEA or district)

Note: Cumbria and Telford have one selective school.

[edit] Callaghan’s Great Debate

In 1976 the future Labour prime minister James Callaghan gave a speech at Oxford’s Ruskin College. He launched what became known as the ‘great debate’ on the education system. He went on to list the areas he felt needed closest scrutiny: the case for a core curriculum, the validity and use of informal teaching methods, the role of school inspection and the future of the examination system. Callaghan was not the first to raise these questions. A ‘black paper’ attacking liberal theories in education and poor standards in comprehensive schools had appeared in 1969, to be followed by a second in 1971. The authors were the academics Brian Cox and A.E. Dyson. They were supported by certain head teachers, notably Dr. Rhodes Boyson, who later became a Conservative MP. The black papers called for a return to traditional teaching methods and an end to the comprehensive experiment.

[edit] Current status

Comprehensive schools remain the most common type of state secondary school in England, and the only type in Wales. They account for around 90% of pupils, or 64% if one does not count schools with low-level selection. This figure varies by region.

Since the 1988 Education Reform Act, parents have a right to choose which school their child should go to. This concept of “school choice” introduces the idea of competition between state schools, a fundamental change to the original “neighbourhood comprehensive” model, and is partly intended as a means by which schools that are perceived to be inferior are forced either to improve or, if hardly anyone wants to go there, to close down. Government policy is currently promoting ‘specialisation’ whereby parents choose a secondary school appropriate for their child’s interests and skills. Most initiatives focus on parental choice and information, implementing a pseudo-market incentive to encourage better schools. This logic has underpinned the controversial league tables of school performance.

Both Conservative Party and Labour governments have been experimenting with alternatives to the original neighbourhood comprehensive since the mid-1980s.[11]

Experiments have included:

  • partnerships where successful schools share knowledge and best practice with nearby schools
  • federations of schools, where a partnership is formalised through joint governance arrangements
  • closing and reopening ‘failing schools’
  • city technology colleges
  • city academies

Currently, following the advice of Sir Cyril Taylor—former businessman and Conservative politician, and chairman of the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT)—in the mid-1990s, both major parties have backed the creation of specialist schools, which focus on excellence in a particular subject and are theoretically allowed to select up to 10% of their intake. This policy consensus had brought to an end the notion that all children will go to their local school, and assumes parents will send their child to the school they feel they are most suited to.

These new school types mean that it is open to debate whether the comprehensive system is still in operation; but it could be argued that the new forms of school are best characterised as developments from, rather than challenges to, comprehensive education.

[edit] Debate and issues

Supporters of comprehensive education argue that it is unacceptable on both moral and practical grounds to select or reject children on the basis of their academic ability. They also argue that comprehensive schools in the UK have allowed millions of children to gain access to further and higher education after the age of 16, and that the previous selective system relegated children who failed the eleven-plus examination to a second-class, inferior education and hence to worse employment prospects.

Critics of comprehensive schools argue that the reality has been a levelling-down of provision and a denial of opportunity to bright children from disadvantaged backgrounds, who might once have expected to pass the eleven-plus exam and have the advantage of a grammar school education. The most straightforward way for parents to ensure that their children attend what is perceived to be a “good” school now is to buy a house within its catchment area. This, critics claim, has led to de facto selection according to parents’ financial means rather than their children’s ability at passing exams.

During the late 1960s there was heated debate about the merits of streaming pupils. In grammar schools pupils were taught in different classes according to their perceived ability. At first the comprehensives copied this structure, but the failings of streaming, principally that it failed to reflect the spread of abilities in different subjects, led to experiments with other methods. One controversial method, mixed ability teaching, was widely adopted. Over time, however, it was supplanted in many schools by ‘setting‘, whereby children are grouped by ability in different subjects, allowing the possibility of being in the ‘top’ set for mathematics, but the ‘bottom set’ for history.

[edit] Scotland

Scotland has a very different educational system from England and Wales, though also based on comprehensive education. It has different ages of transfer, different examinations and a different philosophy of choice and provision. All publicly funded primary and secondary schools are comprehensive. The Scottish Government has rejected plans for specialist schools as of 2005.

[edit] Northern Ireland

Education in Northern Ireland differs slightly from systems used elsewhere in the United Kingdom, but it is more similar to that used in England and Wales than it is to Scotland.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Prof Dr. Valentin Merkelbach: “Gesamtschulen und Grundschulen sind das Beste in unserem Schulsystem” http://bildungsklick.de/a/55873/gesamtschulen-und-grundschulen-sind-das-beste-in-unserem-schulsystem/
  2. ^ who scored 100 on a math test, provided by the scientists
  3. ^ Manfred Tücke: “Psychologie in der Schule, Psychologie für die Schule: Eine themenzentrierte Einführung in die Psychologie für (zukünftige) Lehrer”. 4 Auflage 2005. Münster: LIT Verlag; p. 127; the study was done in North Rhine-Westphalia, students were attending a Leistungskurs
  4. ^ Presseinformationen: Sprechzettel von Ministerin Barbara Sommer zur Pressekonferenz am 19.08.2008 “Schuljahresbeginn und Auswertung des Zentralabiturs 2008”. Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen
  5. ^ Stephan Lüke: “Gutes Abitur, schlechte Gesamtschule”. WDR Wissen
  6. ^ Ehmke et al., 2004, In: PISA-Konsortium Deutschland (Hrsg.): PISA 2003 – Der Bildungsstand der Jugendlichen in Deutschland – Ergebnisse des 2. internationalen Vergleiches, Münster/NewYork: Waxmann, S. 244
  7. ^ Jochen Leffers: “Gesamtschule folgenlos – Bildung wird vererbt”. 3rd January 2008. Der Spiegel.”
  8. ^ Kurt A. Heller: “Umgang mit Heterogenität im Gesamtschul- versus dreigliedrigen Sekundarschulsystem”. From the magazine: “Realschule in Deutschland”, 116, Nr. 6 (2008) [1]
  9. ^ Ulrich Sprenger: “Die Realschule im Spiegel der Bildungsforschung: Sieben Thesen und acht Fragen zu ihrer Zukunft – Ein Beitrag zur Schulformdebatte” [2]
  10. ^ Peter Medway and Pat Kingwell, ‘A Curriculum in its place: English teaching in one school 1946-1963′, History of Education 39, no. 6 (November 2010): 749-765.
  11. ^ a b Comps – here to stay?, Phil Tineline, September 2005, BBC, accessed 12 August 2008.
  12. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20051025/ai_n15717384.  [dead link]
  13. ^ Report and Recommendations on Reorganisation of Secondary Education. West Sussex County Council. 1966. 

[edit] External links

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Comprehensive School, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Further Education

Further education (often abbreviated FE; called continuing education in U.S. English) is a term mainly used in connection with education in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is post-compulsory education (in addition to that received at secondary school), that is distinct from the education offered in universities (higher education). It may be at any level above compulsory secondary education, from basic skills training to higher vocational education such as; City and Guilds, Higher National Diploma or Foundation Degree.

Further Education in the United Kingdom and Ireland

What we mean by ‘further education’. (FE) is post-compulsory education that is distinct from the education offered in universities (Higher Education). The courses provided may be at any level, from basic skills training to higher vocational education. ‘Universities’ must have been given powers to award taught degrees and will normally have at least 1,000 full time equivalent higher education students, of whom at least 750 are registered on degree courses. The number of full time equivalent higher education students must also exceed 55 percent of the total number of full time equivalent students.http://https:www.gov.uk/recognised-uk-degrees Further Education colleges are usually far smaller and often focus on work-based, adult and community learning and post-16 courses similar to those taught at schools.

The Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation (Ofqual) recorded 24,274 different regulated qualifications being undertaken in these settings during the period 2007-12. These range from a Level 1 Certificate in Wired Sugar Flowers to a Level 4 NVQ in Quantity Surveying or a Level 4 Diploma in Therapeutic Counselling.http://www2.ofqual.gov.uk/downloads/category/171-datasets There are also over 700 colleges and other institutions which do not have degree-awarding powers but provide complete courses leading to recognised UK degrees. Courses at these institutions are validated by institutions which do have degree awarding powers.http://https:www.gov.uk/recognised-uk-degrees

Another option.

Youth unemployment increased by 40 per cent under the previous Labour goverment as is reflected by figures from the Office of National Statistics.http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/subnational-labour/regional-labour-market-statistics/september-2011/stb-regional-labour-market-september-2011.html And NEET rates soared by a third in UK, as they fell internationally.http://www.oecd.org/edu/skills-beyond-school/48631582.pdf Further Education has the ability to empower young people who may feel alienated by ‘academic-style’ courses or who are simply looking for another option offering Skills, Apprenticeships and Youth Employment opportunities, in particular, via the potential of apprenticeships.

A distinction is usually made between FE and higher education (“HE”) which is education at a higher level than secondary school, usually provided in distinct institutions such as universities. FE in the United Kingdom therefore includes education for people over 16, usually excluding universities. It is primarily taught in FE colleges (which are similar in concept to United States community colleges, and sometimes use “community college” in their title), work-based learning, and adult and community learning institutions. This includes post-16 courses similar to those taught at schools and sub-degree courses similar to those taught at higher education (HE) colleges (which also teach degree-level courses) and at some universities.


[edit] Further education by country

[edit] Australia

In Australia, technical and further education or TAFE /ˈtf/ institutions provide a wide range of predominantly vocational tertiary education courses, mostly qualifying courses under the National Training System/Australian Qualifications Framework/Australian Quality Training Framework. Fields covered include hospitality, tourism, construction, engineering, secretarial skills, visual arts, information technology and community work.

Individual TAFE institutions (usually with many campuses) are known as either colleges or institutes, depending on the state or territory. TAFE colleges are owned, operated and financed by the various state and territory governments. This is in contrast to the higher education sector, whose funding is predominantly the domain of the Commonwealth government and whose universities are predominantly owned by the state governments.

[edit] United Kingdom

[edit] England

From 2001-2010 FE in England was managed by the Learning and Skills Council (LSC), the then largest government agency funding education provision. The LSC had a budget of some £13 billion and is organised on a regional basis through around 47 local councils. The LSC had a particular mission to improve and expand further education provision, driven by the UK government’s desire to increase standards in post-16 student retention and achievement, particularly in skills-based vocational provision in FE colleges. Recent government-driven LSC and Department for Children, Schools and Families policies, such as Success for All and the Skills Strategy, articulate this vision.

Colleges in England that are regarded as part of the FE sector include:

  • General FE (GFE) and tertiary colleges
  • Sixth form colleges
  • Specialist colleges (mainly colleges of agriculture and horticulture and colleges of drama and dance)
  • Adult education institutes

In addition, FE courses may be offered in the school sector, both in sixth form (16-19) schools, or, more commonly, sixth forms within secondary schools.

The Learning and Skills Improvement Service (LSIS – formerly the Quality Improvement Agency and Centre for Excellence in Leadership) is the sector owned body supporting the development of excellent and sustainable FE provision across the learning and skills sector. Its aim is to accelerate the drive for excellence and, working in partnership with all parts of the sector, builds on the sector’s own capacity to design, commission and deliver improvement and strategic change.

For technology support and advice, JISC provides a network of regional support centres, free at the point of use to anyone working in colleges in the UK.

From September 2007, teachers working in FE in England are required to gain professional status, known as Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills (QTLS). The first stage of QTLS is an initial ‘passport to teaching’ module. The second stage is full teacher training, which would typically take up to five years to complete. The qualification covers both taught and practical skills, and also requires teachers to undertake 30 hours of continuous professional development per year.

Good quality support for employers is indicated by the award of the Training Quality Standard, an initiative to improve the quality of provision for vocational education, while all colleges and FE providers are subject to regular inspections by Ofsted.

Lifelong Learning UK is the independent sector skills council responsible for the qualifications and standards for teachers working in FE. The trade unions for FE staff are the University and College Union and the Association of Teachers and Lecturers. Teachers working in the sixth form colleges, sixth form schools and sixth forms of secondary schools are eligible to join the teaching unions which recruit in the secondary school sector

In England, further education is often seen as forming one part of a wider learning and skills sector, alongside workplace education, prison education, and other types of non-school, non-university education and training. Since June 2009, the sector is overseen by the new Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, although some parts (such as education and training for 14-19 year olds) fall within the Department for Children, Schools and Families.

[edit] Northern Ireland

Further education in Northern Ireland is provided through six multi-campus colleges [1]. Northern Ireland’s Department for Employment and Learning has the responsibility for providing FE in the province.

Most secondary schools also provide a Sixth Form scheme whereby a student can choose to attend said school for 2 additional years to complete their AS and A-levels.

[edit] Scotland

Scotland’s further education colleges provide education for those young people who follow a vocational route after the end of compulsory education at age 16. They offer a wide range of vocational qualifications to young people and older adults, including SVQs, Higher National Certificates and Higher National Diplomas. Frequently, the first two years of higher education, usually in the form of an HND can be taken in an FE college, followed by attendance at university.

[edit] Wales

Further education in Wales is provided through:

Further education in Wales comes under the remit of the Welsh Assembly Government and was formerly funded by ELWa before its merger with the Assembly.

[edit] Ireland

Ireland has further education colleges.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] External links

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Further Education, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Foundation School

In England and Wales, a foundation school is a state-funded school in which the governing body has greater freedom in the running of the school than in community schools. Foundation schools were set up under the School Standards and Framework Act 1998 to replace grant-maintained schools, which were funded directly by central government. Grant-maintained schools that had previously been voluntary controlled or county schools (but not voluntary aided) usually became foundation schools.

Foundation schools are a kind of “maintained school”, meaning that they are funded by central government via the Local Education Authority, and do not charge fees to students. As with voluntary controlled schools, all capital and running costs are met by the government. As with voluntary aided schools, the governing body employs the staff and has responsibility for admissions to the school, subject to rules imposed by central government. Pupils follow the National Curriculum.[1][2][3]

Some foundation schools, also called trust schools, have a foundation or trust that owns the land and buildings. Otherwise the land and buildings are owned by the governing body. The foundation usually appoints about a quarter of the school governors, as in voluntary controlled schools, but in some cases it appoints the majority of governors, as in voluntary aided schools.[4]

Within the maintained sector in England, approximately 2% of primary schools and 15% of secondary schools are foundation schools. Almost all of these are non-faith schools.[5] The proportion is considerably smaller in Wales, where four primary schools and eight secondary schools have foundation status.[6]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ “Categories of Schools – Overview”. Governornet. Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2003-09-05. 
  2. ^ “The Composition of Schools in England”. Department for Children, Schools and Families. June 2008. 
  3. ^ Types of School, Citizens Advice Bureau.
  4. ^ “Trust School Proposals”. Department for Children, Schools and Families. 18 July 2008. 
  5. ^ “Pupil Characteristics and Class Sizes in Maintained Schools in England: January 2008 (Provisional)”. Department for Children, Schools and Families. 
  6. ^ “High school bids for independence”. BBC News. 7 August 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Foundation School, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Governor Mark

Governor Mark is a quality standard for School Governing Bodies in England. It was developed in 2006. The process of accreditation involves assessment against a detailed framework covering all aspects of the responsibilities of school governance. Achievement of the award has a validity of three years, after which reassessment will be required, and allows the school to display the GLM (governance, leadership and management) Governor Mark logo.

[edit] External links

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Governor Mark, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Welcome to our School Governor(net) website


[edit] State schools

[edit] Composition

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, every state school has a governing body, consisting of specified numbers of various categories of governors depending on the type and size of school. Governors are unpaid, but they may be reimbursed for expenses for such as the care of dependants or relatives and travel costs. Under section 50 of the Employment Rights Act 1996] employers must give anyone in their employment who serves as a governor reasonable time off their employ to carry out their governor duties. Employers can decide whether this time off is given with or without pay.[3]

Generally the following categories are applicable:

  • Parent Governors parents of children at the school;
  • Staff Governors: members of the school staff;
  • Authority Governors (previously known as LEA Governors): nominated by the Local Authority;
  • Community Governors: members of the local community (appointed by the rest of the governing body);
  • Foundation, Partnership and Sponsor Governors: representatives of any sponsoring bodies.

The proportions vary between differing types of school, but as an example, in Community Schools, which are usually owned by the LA, the regulations prescribe that parent governors should be at least one-third of the governors, staff governors at least two places, but no more than one-third, including the headteacher; LA governors 20% and community governors at least 20%. The minimum number of governors is nine, the maximum is twenty (although sponsor governors are additional to these numbers). Governors are appointed for a maximum of four years, this term is renewable.

The Headteacher of each school is ex officio a staff governor, but he or she can decline to take up the position. Should they decide not to become a member of the governing body, their place is left vacant.[4]

Staff governors (other than the head teacher) are elected by the school staff and must be paid to work at the school, by the school (that is, not under an external contract such as catering or cleaning). At least one staff governor must be a teacher, and if there are three or more staff governors, at least one must be a member of the support staff. If no member of the appropriate category stands for election, the vacant place can be filled by an elected person from the other category (i.e. if no teachers wish to become governors, all staff governors may be support staff, and vice-versa).

Parent governors can either be elected by parents of children at the school, or if insufficient numbers are elected, can be appointed by the governing body to fill any remaining vacancies. Such appointees need not be parents of children currently attending the school – if no suitable candidates are found, they may be parents of former pupils, or of any child of school age. Parents so appointed can be removed from their positions by a majority vote of the governing body.

Associate members may be appointed by the governing body as members of committees, and may include pupils, school staff, or anyone else who the governing body feel could contribute to its work. Their voting rights are decided by the governing body, and are also limited by law to exclude matters concerning the budget, admissions, pupil discipline and the election or appointment of governors. Associate Members are not governors and are not included in the school’s Instrument of Government.

By law, governing bodies meet at least three times every year, as a Full Governing Body, where the ongoing business of committees, the governing body and the school are discussed, reported on and where decisions are taken by a majority vote. Most of the work of governors, however, is done at committee level.

[edit] Chair

The Governing Body is led by the Chair, elected by the Governing Body from within its membership, though anyone who works at the school cannot stand for the office. Since 1 September 2003, the term of office for the Chair can be set to more than one year. The Chair is supported in their work by one or more Vice Chairs, who may be delegated certain tasks or responsibilities. Certain tasks, including signing off the school budget, can only be done by the Chair.[citation needed] The process for election of chair and vice-chair and their term of office should be laid down in the governing body’s standing orders.

The full Governing Body can remove the Chair and/or Vice Chair by a majority vote of no confidence.

[edit] Clerk

The governors are supported in their work by a Clerk to the Governing Body. In many schools this role is combined with that of Bursar or Administrative Officer, although they may also be employed solely in a clerking role. In some areas clerking services may be provided by the Local Education Authority. The Clerk is remunerated for their work.

The Clerk is usually considered an integral part of the Governing Body, although they are not entitled to vote. Their role is primarily one of providing advice and interpretation on the regulatory and administrative framework in which governors work, preparing and distributing minutes and agendas, keeping records and dealing with correspondence.

[edit] Responsibilities

The headteacher of the school is responsible for day-to-day management of the school. The role of the Governing Body is to provide strategic management, and to act as a “critical friend”, supporting the work of the headteacher and other staff.

Schools generally have a delegated budget to cover salaries, running costs, maintenance and equipment; the Governing Body is responsible for managing this budget. They can decide how many and what types of staff to employ, which equipment to upgrade or replace and what the priorities are for implementing new strategies and initiatives.

Governors must appoint the headteacher, and may be involved in the appointment of other staff.[5]

Governors also have a role in monitoring the school’s progress, and in setting annual targets for the school’s performance and for the headteacher (and ensuring that the headteacher sets targets for other staff).

Governors must review school exclusions in certain circumstances, and have the power to reinstate an excluded pupil or reduce the term of the exclusion (although not to increase it).

Foundation schools, Voluntary Aided schools and Academies act as their own admissions authorities. In such schools the governing body sets the admissions policy, makes admissions decisions and defends admissions appeals.

[edit] Committees

Most Governing Bodies use a committee structure to undertake their monitoring and evaluation roles. Membership and terms of reference of committees must be determined annually. Finance, Staffing, Admissions, Health and Safety, Curriculum and Premises Committees are very common. Other areas covered by committees may include marketing, discipline and management. Many Governing Bodies form working groups to tackle specific problems.

Since 1 September 2003, particular committees can be given delegated powers to make decisions about the school that do not then require any approval by the full Governing Body

[edit] Training

Governors and clerks can be offered training and support either by the local authority, by central government or by other organisations.

[edit] Support organisations

There are a number of organisations, websites and resources that support governors and governing bodies in England and Wales.

The National Governors’ Association is a representative body for school governors in England. The NGA is an independent charity. Governors can join the NGA as individuals, as members of a governing body, or through their local governors’ association.

Governor Wales is the voice of governors of schools in Wales. Governor Wales is funded by the Welsh Assembly.

The School Governors’ One-Stop Shop (SGOSS) is a government funded charity tasked with recruiting governors to governing bodies in England. SGOSS also receives support from business organisations. The SGOSS service is free to Local Authorities, volunteers, employers and schools.

GovernorLine offers free, confidential advice, information and support to school governors, clerks and individuals involved directly in the governance of maintained schools in England. The GovernorLine number (from a UK line) is 08000 722 181. GovernorLine is a free service delivered by an organisation called WorkLife Support under contract to the UK government.

GovernorNet.co.uk was a UK government website with information for school governors. It was closed by the Department for Education in April 2011, with a recommendation to governors to use the variety of forums that are available including UK Governors and TES Connect.

[edit] Independent schools

Independent schools, and public schools in particular, generally have governing bodies, although by their very nature, such schools usually decide on their own requirements for their composition.

[edit] Research

A study published in 1995 examined whether they were bodies of ‘active citizens’ providing opportunities for democratic participation in the governance of schools or unpaid volunteers doing the bidding of the state. It also found that the composition and functioning of governing bodies was shaped by the social divisions of class, race and gender.[6]

[edit] References

  1. ^ “Research on the role of school governors”. Department for Education. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011. 
  2. ^ “Being a governor”. Bournemouth Borough Council. 22 October 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2011. 
  3. ^ “Time off for public duties”. Directgov. Retrieved 29 April 2011. 
  4. ^ “Guide to the Law for School Governors” (pdf). Department for Education. Retrieved 2011-11-29. 
  5. ^ “The School Staffing (England) Regulations 2009”. legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-11-29. 
  6. ^ Deem, R.; Brehony, K.J.; Heath, S. (1995). Active citizenship and the Governing of Schools. Buckingham: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-19184-3. 

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article school governor, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.